Alcohol Policy in Chile: A Systematic Review of Policy Developments and Evaluations
To comprehensively review enacted and proposed alcohol laws and existing impact evaluations of national alcohol policies in Chile.
The researchers searched
- enacted laws in the Chilean National Library of Congress,
- proposed laws in the websites of the House of Deputies and Senate and
- impact evaluations in PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, Scielo, JSTOR, Epistemonikos and OpenGrey from inception to February 2019.
Eligibility criteria included enacted laws and proposed laws on national alcohol policies and research studies evaluating the impact of national alcohol policies. One author screened enacted laws and proposed laws; two authors independently screened research records. The researchers included any national alcohol policy intervention and classified policies according to 10 WHO alcohol policy domains. The researchers used the Cochrane EPOC Review Group criteria to assess risk of bias of research records.
The results identified and screened 104 enacted laws, 138 proposed laws and 1538 research records. Of these, 72 enacted laws, 118 proposed laws and three research articles were eligible for synthesis. The results found enacted policies in all WHO alcohol policy domains.
Regarding the most cost-effective policies,
- Chile has made limited use of taxation,
- has not regulated alcohol marketing and
- has weakened alcohol availability regulation.
The study found a large number of proposed laws, 79% of which would strengthen alcohol control. The few impact evaluation studies examined driving under the influence policies and found a short-term reduction of alcohol-related injuries and deaths.
Chile has enacted alcohol policies in all WHO policy domains but has not adopted policies with highest likely cost-effectiveness. Only the impact of driving under the influence policies has been evaluated.