Snehil Gupta, Rakesh Lal, Atul Ambekar, Ashwani Kumar Mishra and Ravindra Rao


Gupta S, Lal R, Ambekar A, Mishra AK, Rao R. The pattern of alcohol use and its relationship with consequences among problem alcohol users: A community-based cross-sectional study from India. Indian J Psychiatry 2020;62:152-8

Indian Journal of Psychiatry
Release date

The Pattern of Alcohol Use and its Relationship with Consequences among Problem Alcohol Users: A Community-based Cross-Sectional Study from India

Research article



Pattern of alcohol use has a strong bearing on alcohol-related negative consequences. Very few studies from India have assessed this relationship using any standardized instrument.


The current study aims to assess the relationship between pattern of alcohol use and negative consequences among heavy alcohol users using a standardized instrument.

Materials and Methods

This cross-sectional, observational study using snowball sampling technique was conducted among 75 participants in an urban slum of a metropolitan city of India. Screening of the participants was done by the World Health Organization Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (WHO-ASSIST). Alcohol use details and alcohol-related adverse consequences were obtained by a semi-structured questionnaire and Drinker Inventory of Consequences (DrInC) inventory, respectively. Descriptive statistics, Chi-square test, and logistic regression test were used to analyze the data.


There was a significant association between high total DrInC score and ≥3 subscale scores with employment status, percentage of total family income spent on alcohol, source of income to procure alcohol, amount of alcohol, morning alcohol use, alcohol use for relaxation, and alcohol use throughout the day (Chi-square test). Age ≤35 years, current unemployment/part-time employment state, spending ≥25% of total family income on alcohol, family history, and alcohol use throughout the day were more likely to have high total DrInC score and ≥2 subscale scores (logistic regression analysis).


A large proportion of the participants were suffering significantly from alcohol-related consequences but still were not receiving any treatment. It emphasizes the need for more epidemiological studies in this area for its treatment and policy-level implication.

Source Website: Indian Journal of Psychiatry