Having more alcohol-specific household rules reduced risk of early-onset of heavy alcohol use. Having more substance-using peers increased the risk of early-onset heavy alcohol use. Early-onset heavy alcohol use increased the odds of developing an alcohol use disorder in early adulthood.
Early initiation and heavy alcohol use throughout adolescence are associated with increased risk of alcohol-related harm. Parenting factors and peer influences in early adolescence are crucial to reduce risk of later alcohol-related harm.
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