Prevalence and Sociodemographic Determinants of Alcohol Consumption Among Adults Living With HIV in Eswatini
Alcohol consumption contributes to a significant burden of illnesses, health conditions and premature deaths globally. There is limited knowledge of alcohol consumption among people living with HIV (PLWH) in Eswatini. This study sought to determine the prevalence, and examine the sociodemographic determinants of alcohol consumption among adult people living with HIV in Eswatini.
Using the Swaziland HIV Incidence Measurement Survey 2, a recent national representative cross-sectional survey conducted in Eswatini between August 2016 and March 2017, a subsample of 2,832 adults (aged 18 and older) living with HIV was extracted. Multinomial logistic regression was used to assess the sociodemographic factors associated with alcohol consumption (i.e. use or misuse).
The prevalence of at-risk alcohol use was 10.9% (23% male v 4.5% female), whereas low-risk alcohol use was estimated at 8.5% (14.7% male v 5.2% female). Men were more likely to engage in alcohol use (adjusted relative risk ratio [aRRR] = 3.46 [95% CI 3.46–6.62]) and at-risk alcohol use (aRRR = 6.12 [95% CI 6.12–11.47]) than females. Those who reported HIV stigma had a higher likelihood of at-risk alcohol use compared to those who did not report HIV stigma (aRRR = 1.43 [95% CI 1.04–1.98]).
The findings highlight a notable prevalence of alcohol use or at-risk alcohol use among PLWH in Eswatini. Males, those with no education, never married and those who reported HIV stigma were more likely to report at-risk alcohol use. The study thus recommends innovative policies and strategies to curb alcohol-related harm in the Eswatini population, specifically among PLWH.