Domestic violence against women during coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic lockdown in Egypt: a cross-sectional study
While it is necessary to limit the spread of the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, efforts including social isolation, restricted travel, and school closures are anticipated to raise the probability of domestic violence. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence, pattern, risk factors, and physical health outcomes of domestic violence against women during the COVID-19 pandemic.
A cross-sectional study was conducted using a convenient sample. The data collection tool was based on Sect. 11 of the Egyptian Demographic Health Survey, 2014, which is designed to measure domestic violence.
The researchers used a Google form-designed questionnaire and distributed the link to social media platforms from May 2020 to June 2020 till the collection of the required sample of 388 completed questionnaires.
The prevalence of every form of domestic violence was 31%.
- Emotional violence was the most prevalent (43.5%) followed by
- Physical (38.9%) and
- Sexual violence (17.5%).
About 10.5% of women reported suffering from all types of violence. The husband was the most common perpetrator of DV.
The determinants of ever experiencing any form of domestic violence were:
- Husband’s use of alcohol or substance (OR = 14.4),
- Low education level of women (OR = 7.3), unemployment (OR = 2.31), and
- Insufficient income (OR = 2.01).
The most common health consequences of domestic violence were injuries such as cuts, bruises, and aches.
The prevalence of ever experiencing any form of domestic violence was 31% which is considered high. Emotional violence was the most common whereas sexual violence was the least common.
Identifying the risk factors of domestic violence would support the development and implementation of preventive and screening programs for early identification and offering social support to the victims. Policies should be adopted for the early detection and protection of women suffering from violent behaviors. Access to adequate prompt support and health-care services is crucial in order to decrease the consequences of violence.
It is necessary to implement alcohol or other drug use disorder interventions, preventive measures, and screening programs in families to reduce domestic violence.
Alcohol and violence in Egypt
Our study found that alcohol [use disorder] was the most common predictor of every form of DV or each type of violence.”Elsaid NMAB, Shehata SA, Sayed HH, Mohammed HS, Abdel-Fatah ZF. Domestic violence against women during coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic lockdown in Egypt: a cross-sectional study. J Egypt Public Health Assoc. 2022 Nov 14;97(1):23. doi: 10.1186/s42506-022-00117-1. PMID: 36372811.
Significant predictors associated with exposure to every form of Domestic Violence were the following:
- Husband’s use of alcohol or drugs (OR = 14.4),
- Primarily educated women (OR = 7.3),
- unemployment (OR = 2.3), and
- insufficient income (OR = 2.0).
The significant predictors of physical violence were the following:
- Husband’s use of alcohol or drugs (OR = 17.8),
- Primarily educated women (OR = 4.5),
- Unemployment (OR = 2.06), and
- Insufficient income (OR = 2.2).
The study highlights the significant role of alcohol use disorder as a risk factor for domestic violence that indicates the necessity to implement preventive measures and screening programs in families and abuse intervention policies.