Biobehavioral Interactions Between Stress and Alcohol
In this review, the effects of stress on alcohol use are discussed. The interactions between biological stress systems and alcohol use are examined, with a focus on the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis, corticotropin releasing factor, dynorphin, neuropeptide Y, and norepinephrine systems. Findings from animal models suggest that these biological stress systems may be useful targets for medications development for alcohol use disorder and co-occurring stress-related disorders in humans.
Brain stress systems mediate the effects of stress on alcohol use and the effects of chronic alcohol exposure on subsequent alcoholuse and stress reactivity. Therefore, brain stress systems are useful targets for the development of medications for AUD and for co-occurring stress-related disorders. More specifically, glucocorticoid, CRF, dynorphin, neuropeptide Y, and norepinephrine systems may be useful targets for modulating stress-alcohol interactions. Several pharmacological agents that target these systems are promising candidates for the treatment of AUD and co-occurring mental health conditions in humans.