Epidemiology, Hot Spots, and Sociodemographic Risk Factors of Alcohol Consumption in Indian Men and Women: Analysis of National Family Health Survey-4 (2015-16), a Nationally Representative Cross-Sectional Study
To map the alcohol hot spots and understand the Sociodemographic Indices (SDI) affecting alcohol consumption in Indian men and women.
Data from National Family Health Survey-4 carried out from 2015 to 2016 with a sample size of 103,411 men and 699,686 women were used for Geographic Information System mapping, and hot spot identification by spatial statistics (Getis-Ord Gi*). Bivariate analyses and multiple logistic regressions were used to analyze SDI.
India has three major alcohol hot spots: (1) North-East (NE) states, (2) Eastern Peninsular states formed by Chhattisgarh, Odisha, Jharkhand, and Telangana, and (3) Southern states of Tamil Nadu and Kerala. Hot spot analysis strongly correlated with region-wise analysis of SDI. Respondents who consumed tobacco have higher odds (men adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 5.42; women aOR: 4.30) of consuming alcohol. Except for religion and social category, other socioeconomic factors have a low to moderate effect on alcohol consumption.
Hot spots and high-risk districts of alcohol consumption identified in this study can guide public health policies for targeted intervention. Alcohol use is at the discretion of individual states and union territories, and stringent anti-alcohol policies strictly enforced across India are the keys to control alcohol use.