Mixed Effect of Alcohol, Smoking, and Smokeless Tobacco Use on Hypertension among Adult Population in India: A Nationally Representative Cross-Sectional Study
Sporadic evidence is available on the association of consuming multiple substances with the risk of hypertension among adults in India where there is a substantial rise in cases. This study assesses the mutually exclusive and mixed consumption patterns of alcohol, tobacco smoking and smokeless tobacco use and their association with hypertension among the adult population in India.
Nationally representative samples of men and women drawn from the National Family and Health Survey (2015–2016) were analyzed. A clinical blood pressure measurement above 140 mmHg (systolic blood pressure) and 90 mmHg (diastolic blood pressure) were considered in the study as hypertension. Association between mutually exclusive categories of alcohol, tobacco smoking, and smokeless tobacco and hypertension were examined using multivariate binary logistic regression models.
Daily consumption of alcohol among male smokeless tobacco users had the highest likelihood to be hypertensive (OR: 2.32, 95% CI: 1.99–2.71) compared to the no-substance users. Women who smoked, and those who used any smokeless tobacco with a daily intake of alcohol had 71% (OR: 1.71, 95% CI: 1.14–2.56) and 51% (OR: 1.51, 95% CI: 1.25–1.82) higher probability of being hypertensive compared to the no-substance-users, respectively.
In order to curb the burden of hypertension among the population, there is a need for an integrated and more focused intervention addressing the consumption behavior of alcohol and tobacco