Dose–Response Relative Risk of Injury From Acute Alcohol Consumption in 22 Countries: Are Women at Higher Risk Than Men?
The risk of injury from alcohol consumption was analyzed by gender, controlling for frequency of heavy alcohol use occasions, and by cause of injury (traffic, violence, fall, other).
Case-crossover analysis was conducted on 18,627 injured patients arriving at the emergency department (ED) within six hours of the event.
Risk of injury was similar for females and males at ≤3 units of alcohol prior to injury. At higher volume levels females were at greater risk than males, and significantly so at 3.1–6 units of alcohol and 6.1–10 units of alcohol. For those reporting 5+ ≥ monthly, females were at higher risk than males at all volume levels, and the gender by volume interaction was stronger than for those consuming 5+ <monthly at ≤3 units of alcohol and 6.1–10 units of alcohol. Females were at higher risk of injury than males for all causes of injury except those related to traffic at lower levels of consumption (<6 units of alcohol), although the gender by volume interaction was significant only for injury from other causes at 3.1–6 units of alcohol.
Females are at higher risk of injury than males, regardless of frequency of heavy alcohol use and for all causes other than those related to traffic.