Prevalence and Correlates of Multimorbidity Among Adults in Botswana: A Cross-Sectional Study
Botswana is currently undergoing rapid epidemiological transition indicated by a decline in infectious diseases and an increase in chronic non-communicable diseases and their associated risk factors. The main aim of this study was to assess prevalence and correlates of multimorbidity among the adult population in Botswana.
A cross-sectional study called Chronic Non-Communicable Diseases Study (NCDs study) was conducted in March, 2016. Using multistage cross sectional sampling design, 1178 male and female respondents aged 15 years and above were interviewed across 3 cities and towns, 15 urban villages and 15 rural villages. Participants were interviewed face-to-face using a structured questionnaire. Adjusted multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to assess covariates of multimorbidity. The statistical significant level was fixed at p <0 .05.
Prevalence of multimorbidity in the sampled population was estimated at 5.4%. Multivariate results indicate that the odds of multimorbidty were significantly high among women (AOR = 3.34, 95% C.I. = 1.22–21.3) than men. On the other hand, the odds of multimorbidity were significantly low among young people aged below 24 years (AOR = 0.01, 95% C.I. = 0.00–0.07), currently married people (AOR = 0.24, 95% C.I. = 0.07–0.80) and individuals in the 2nd wealth quintile (AOR = 0.20, 95% C.I. = 0.05–0.75) compared to their counterparts. For behavioral risk factors, alcohol consumption (AOR = 4.80, 95% C.I. = 1.16–19.8) and overweight/obesity (AOR = 1.44, 95% CI = 1.12–2.61) were significantly associated with high multimorbidity prevalence.
Multimorbidity was found to be more prevalent among women, alcohol consumers and overweight/obese people. There is need to strengthen interventions encouraging healthy lifestyles such as non-consumption of alcohol, physical activity and healthy diets. Moreover, there is need for a holistic approach of health care services to meet the needs of those suffering from multimorbidity.